Articles and Book Chapters

Articles and Book Chapters (click on blue numbers to view)

2014a           (with Kezhou Spencer Xiao) “Information Distortion in China,” Journal of Contemporary China Vol. 23, No 88, July 2014, pp.1-18.

2014b           “China’s Future in a Multi-Nodal World Order,” Pacific Affairs 87:2 (June 2014), pp. 265-284.

2013a           “Global Trends and the Tasks of Comparative Politics,” Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 6:1 (March 2013), pp. 1-14.

2013c           “Beyond Win-win: Rethinking China’s International Relationships in Times of Economic Uncertainty,” International Affairs 89:4 (July 2013), pp. 911-928.

2013d           "Identity in Motion: Vietnam since 1986," Asia’s Middle Powers? The Identity and Regional Politics of South Korea and Vietnam (Washington: Brookings, 2013), pp. 115-134.

2013e           “清代亚洲非对称关系的层次与多样性” [Levels and Varieties of Asymmetry in Asia During the Qing Dynasty], 国际安全研究 Journal of International Security Studies 2013:4 (July 2013), pp. 135-144.

2013f            “分权, 政治包容与列宁主义政党末来: 对话布兰德利。沃马克,” [Separation of Powers, Political Inclusion, and the Future of Leninist Political Parties: A Conversation with Brantly Womack (with 闫健Yan Jian), 国外理论动态 [Foreign Theoretical Trends], no. 452, 2013:10 (October 2013), pp. 1-6.

2012a           “Asymmetry and China’s Tributary System,” The Chinese Journal of International Politics, Vol. 5, 2012, pp. 37–54

(2013b)         Translated as “非对称性与中国的朝贡体系,” 国际政治科学 [Quarterly Journal of International Politics] 2013:1 (January), pp. 33-54.

2011b           “Moderniser le parti-État en Chine et au Vietnam” (Modernizing the Party-State in China and Vietnam), Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 18:1(Jan 2011), pp 69-85.

2011c           “东方与西方的‘天下’” (‘Tianxia’ East and West), Jilin Daxue Shehui Kexue Xuebao 吉林大学社会科学学报 [Jilin University journal of social sciences] no. 224, 51:2 (March 2011), pp. 85-91.

2011d           “Asymmetric Rivals: China and Vietnam,” in Sumit Ganguli and William Thompson, eds., Asian Rivalries: Conflict, Escalation, and Limitations on Two-Level Games (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011), pp. 176-194.

2011e           “The Spratlys: From Dangerous Ground to Apple of Discord,” Contemporary South East Asia 33:3 2011), pp. 370-387.

2011f            “Modernization and the Sino-Vietnamese Model,” International Journal of China Studies 2:3 (August-September 2011), pp. 157-175.

(2013f)   Also published in Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh, ed., China: Developmental Model, State-Societal Interplay,andForeign Relations (Kuala Lumpur: Institute of China Studies, 2013), pp. 61-82.

2010a           “Political Reform and Sustainable Development in China,” Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 3:1 (March 2010), pp. 32-54.

2010d           “From Urban Radical to Rural Revolutionary” in Timothy Cheek, ed., Cambridge Critical Introduction to Mao Zedong (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 61-86.

(2011g)  Translated as “从城市激进分子到农村革命家,” 现代哲学 [Contemporary Philosophy] 2011:5 (September 2011), pp. 46-55.

2010e           “China and Vietnam: Managing an Asymmetric Relationship in an Era of Economic Uncertainty,” Asian Politics and Policy 2:4 (November 2010), pp 583-600.

2010f            “Traditional China and the Globalization of International Relations Thinking,” in Zheng Yongnian, ed., China and International Relations: The Chinese View and the Contribution of Wang Gungwu (Routledge, 2010), pp 117-136.

2009a           “China between Region and World,” China Journal no. 61 (January 2009), pp. 1-20.

(2009i)    Translated by 魏书杰 as “Diqu yu shijie zhijiande Zhongguo 地区与世界之间的中国,” Xin Yuanjian新远见[New Thinking] 2009:5, pp. 31-47.

2009b           “Aubama Zongtong: Lishi yu Weilai 奥巴马总统:历史与未来” [President Obama: History and the Future], Jilin Daxue Shehui kexue Xuebao 吉林大学社会科学学报[Jilin University journal of social sciences] 2009: 3 (May 2009), pp. 43-47.

(2009c)   Translated as “Tổng thống Obama: Lịch sử và Tương lai,” Vietnam Week January 22, 2009 (Vietnamnet,

2009e          "Vietnam and China in an Era of Economic Uncertainty," The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 36-2-09, September 7, 2009.

(2009g)   Translated as “Quan hệ Việt - Trung thời khủng hoảng kinh tế,” Vietnam Week September 9, 2009

2008a           “The United States and Sino-Vietnamese Relations,” Japan Focus, January 19, 2008.

(2008d)   Translated as HOA KỲ VÀ QUAN HỆ VIỆT NAM – TRUNG HOA,

                    Gio O, May 2008.

(2008h)   Translated as “Meiguo yu Zhong Yue Guanxi 美国与中越关系 Dongnanya zongheng东南亚纵横 [All-Round Southeast Asia] 2008: 12 no. 194 (December, 2008), pp. 3-7.

2008e           “China as a Normative Foreign Policy Actor,” in Nathalie Tocci, ed., Who is a Normative Foreign Policy Actor? The European Community and its Global Partners (Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2008), pp. 265-299.

(2008c)     Reproduced as Center for European Policy Studies (CEPS) Document no. 282, January 2008. 26 pp.

2007a           “Resolving Asymmetric Stalemate: The Case of the Tibet Question,” Journal of Contemporary China 16, no. 52 (August 2007), pp 443-460.

2007b           “Trends and Prospects,” in Katherine Kaup, ed., Understanding Contemporary Asia Pacific (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2007), pp. 425-436.

2007c           “Teoría de la asimetría y poderes regionales: los casos de India, Brasil, y Sudáfrica,” in Juan Tokatlian, ed., India, Brasil y Sudáfrica: El impacto de las nuevas potencias regionales (Buenos Aires: Libros de Zorzales, 2007), pp. 15-34.

2007d           “China, entre la region y el mundo,” El Debate Político 4:6-7 (October 2007), pp. 49-69.

2007e           “Zhongguo jueqi yu Meiguo: Quanli chiping yu wenming mohe 中国崛起与美国:权力持平与文明的磨合,” [China’s rise and the United States: power parity and the accommodation of civilizations], Waijiao Pinglun 外交评论 2007: 6 (issue no. 100) [Foreign Affairs Review] (December 2007), pp. 16-25.

2006g           “’Ruan quanli’pingxi ’软权力’评析” [A Comment on “soft power”], Jilin Daxue Shehui kexue Xuebao 吉林大学社会科学学报[Jilin University journal of social sciences], 2006:5 (46:197 September 2006), pp. 66-71.

2005a           "The Brightest House: Civilization and Asymmetry," Journal of American Studies of Turkey 17 (Spring 2003), pp. 93-110.

2005b           “Democracy and the Governing Party (执政党): A Theoretical Perspective,” Journal of Chinese Political Science 10:1 (April 2005), pp. 23-42.

2005c           “Dancing Alone: A Hard Look at Soft Power,” Japan Focus (November 2005),

2004a           “China and Southeast Asia: Asymmetry, Leadership and Normalcy,” Pacific Affairs 76:3 (Winter 2003-4), pp. 529-548.

2004b           “Asymmetry Theory and China’s Concept of Multipolarity,” Journal of Contemporary China vol. 13, no. 39 (May 2004), pp. 351-366.

2004d           “China’s Southeast Asia policy: A Success Story for the Third Generation,” Cross-Strait and International Affairs Quarterly 1:1 (January 2004), pp. 161-184.

2004e           “Ke chixu de guoji lingdao quan: lai zi 968-1885 nian Zhong Yue guanxi de jingyan jiaoxun 可持续的国际领导权: 来自持68-1885年中越关系的经验教训,” [Sustainable International Leadership: Lessons from the Sino-Vietnamese relationship, 968-1885,] Shixue Jikan史学季刊 2004:1 (January 2004), pp. 3-14.

2004f            “Meiguo shili de xianshi yu juxian 美国实力的现实与局限,” [The reality and limits of American power], Jilin Daxue Shehui kexue Xuebao 吉林大学社会科学学报[Jilin University journal of social sciences], 2004:1 (January-February), pp. 26-30.

(2004k)   Reprinted in Zhongguo Shehuikexue Wenzhai 中国社会科学文摘 [China social sciences digest] 27:3 (June 2004), pp. 53-55.


2004g           “The United States, human rights, and moral autonomy in the post-Cold War world.” In Robert Fatton and Ruhi Ramazani, eds., The Future of Liberal Democracy: Thomas Jefferson and the Contemporary World (London: Palgrave, 2004), pp. 255-270.

2004h           “Southeast Asia and American Strategic Options,” in James Hentz, ed., The Obligation of Empire: US Grand Strategy at Century’s Dawn, (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2004), pp. 175-196.

2004i            “Party-State Democracy and the Three Represents: A Theoretical Perspective,” in 政治文明与中国政治现代化 Political Civilization and Modernization in China, Vol. 3: 社会转型的政治空间科学 The Political Context of China’s Modernization (Beijing: 中国人民大学, 2004), pp. 157-178.

(2006h)   Translated in part as “Dang zheng minzhu yu ‘san ge daibiao’: Yi zhong lilun toushi 党政民主与’三个代表’:一种理论透视,” in Makesi zhuyi yu Xianshi 马克思主义与现实 [Marxism and Reality], 2006:1 (Jan-Feb 2006), pp. 185-187.

2004j            “Cong ‘Hunan nongmin yundong kaocha baogao’ kan Mao Zedong zhengzhi sixiang de fazhan 从’湖南农民运动会考察报告’看毛泽东政治思想的发展” [The development of Mao Zedong’s political thought from the ‘Report of an Investigation of the Hunan Peasant Movement], 湖南科技大学学报, 社会科学版 [Journal of Hunan Science and Technology University, Social Science edition] 2004:6, pp. 46-77.

2003a           "Asymmetry and Systemic Misperception: The Cases of China, Vietnam and Cambodia during the 1970s." Journal of Strategic Studies 26:2 (June, 2003), pp. 91-118.

2002b           “Preface,” Guoli Liu and Weixing Chen, eds., New Directions in Chinese Politics for the New Millennium (New York: Edwin Mellen, 2002), pp. 1-8.

2001a           “How Size Matters: The United States, China and Asymmetry.” Journal of Strategic Studies, 24:4 (December 2001), pp. 123-150.

(2002a)        Reprinted as “How Size Matters: The United States, China and Asymmetry.”  In Quansheng Zhao, ed., Future Trends in East Asian International Relations (London: Frank Cass, 2002), pp. 123-150.)

(2004c)        Reprinted as “How Size Matters: The United States, China and Asymmetry.”  In Guoli Liu, ed., Chinese Foreign Policy in Transition (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 2004), pp. 73-101.

2001b           “China’s Border Trade and Its Relationship to the National Political Economy.” The American Asian Review 19:2 (Summer), pp. 31-48.

2001c          “Maoism.” In N. Smelser and P. Bates, eds., 2001 International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Oxford: Pergamon), pp. 9191-9193.

2001d           “Mao Before Maoism.” China Journal, no 46 (July), pp. 95-118.

(2001e)         Translated as “Mao Zedong zhuyi zhi qian di Mao Zedong 毛泽东主义之前的毛泽东 [Mao before Maoism].”  Shixue Jikan史学季刊 [Collected papers of history studies] 2001:2 (cumulative 83) April, pp. 85-91.

(2001f)          “Mao Zedong zhuyi zhi qian di Mao Zedong毛泽东主义之前的毛泽东 [Mao before Maoism].”  Reprinted in Zhongguo Xiandai Shi 中国现代史[Contemporary history of China] 2001:8 (August), pp. 140-146.

2000a           “International Relationships at the Border of China and Vietnam.”  Asian Survey 40:6 (December), pp. 981-986.

2000b           (with Gu Xiaosong) “Border Cooperation Between China and Vietnam in the 1990s.”  Asian Survey 40:6 (December), pp. 1042-1058.

2000c           “Bianjie maoyi di tedian ji qi yu guojia zhengzhi jingji di guanxi边界贸易的特点及其与国家政治经济的关系” [The General characteristics of border trade and its relationship to the national political economy].  Dongnanya zongheng东南亚纵横 [All-Round Southeast Asia] no. 71 (Academic Supplement), pp. 76-80.

2000d           “From Ptolemy to Copernicus: Internationalizing the University of Virginia.” Mike Abramson, ed., Towards the Global University: Redefining Excellence in the Third Millennium.  Lancashire: University of Central Lancashire, pp. 173-179.

1999a           "Zhongguo gongtong shehui yu xifang liyi shehui中国共同社会与西方利益社会" [Chinese community and Western society], in Shixue Jikan 史学季刊[Collected papers of history studies] 1999:4 (cumulative 77), pp. 39-46.

1998a           (with William Turley) “Asian Socialism’s Open Doors: Guangzhou and Ho Chi Minh City.” China Journal, no. 40 (July), pp. 95-120.

(1999b)  Reprinted in Anita Chan, Benedict Kerkvliet, and Jonathan Unger, eds., Transforming Asian Socialism: China and Vietnam Compared (Canberra, Allen and Unwin), pp. 73-97.

1998b          “China and Southeast Asia after the Cold War,” in Kenneth Thompson, ed., China, Taiwan, Japan, the United States, and the World (New York: University Press of America, 1998), pp. 29-48.

1997a           “Vietnam in 1996: Reform Immobilism.” Asian Survey, 37:1 (January), pp. 79-87.

1996a          "Vietnam in 1995: Successes in Peace."  Asian Survey, 36:1 (January), pp. 73-82.

1996b-1, 2, 3, 4           (with James Townsend) "Politics in China," in Gabriel Almond and G. Bingham Powell, Jr., ed., Comparative Politics Today:  A World View. 6th ed. New York: Harper Collins, pp. 438-491.

1996c           (with Tun Jen Cheng) "Informal Politics in Asia."  Asian Survey, 36:3 (March), pp. 320-337

1994a           "Sino-Vietnamese Border Trade: The Edge of Normalization." Asian Survey, 34:6 (June), pp. 495-512.

1994b           "Mao Zedong Thoughts."  China Quarterly no. 137 (March), pp. 159-167.

1994c           "Warlordism and Military Regionalism in China."  In Richard H. Yang, Jason C. Hu, Peter K. H. Yu, and Andrew N. D. Yang, eds., Chinese Regionalism: Security Dimensions. Boulder: Westview, 1994.  pp. 21-43.

1994d           "Pushing the Envelope: Impressions from the China-Vietnam Border."  Vietnam Today no. 67 (February-May), pp. 4-5.

1994f-1, 2     (with Guangzhi Zhao), "The Many Worlds of China's Provinces:  Foreign Trade and Diversification."  In David S. G. Goodman and Gerald Segal, China Deconstructs: Politics, Trade and Regionalism.  London: Routledge, pp. 131-176.

1994g-1, 2    "The Problem of Isms: Pragmatic Orthodoxy and Liberalization in Mainland China."  Issues and Studies 30:12 (December), pp. 1-21.

1993a           "Political Reform and Political Change in the Communist World: Perspectives on Vietnam."  In William Turley and Mark Selden, eds., Reinventing Socialism in Vietnam: Doi Moi in Comparative Perspective. Boulder: Westview, 1993. pp. 277-305.

(1995a) Published in translation as “Nhung cai cach va tay doi chinh tri o Viet Nam.” Tr. Nguyen Thi Thanh.  Thoi Nay [Vietnam Today Weekly], 2:47 (November 23), pp. 5-20.

1993b           "The Role of China in American-Vietnamese Relations," The American-Vietnamese Dialogue 8:2 (February ),  pp. 9-16.

1993c-1, 2, 3 "Asian Communism: Enigma Variations."  Miller Center Occasional Paper, no. 4.

1992b           (with Judy Batt, Adrian Hyde-Price, and Margot Light) "Foreign Policy Ideology."  In Gerald Segal et al., Openness and Foreign Policy Reform in Communist States. London: Routledge, for the Royal Institute of International Affairs.  pp. 175-220.

1992c           "Political Reform in China in the 1980s: A Comparative Communist Perspective."  In Tatu Vanhanen, ed., Strategies of Democratization (New York: Taylor and Francis), pp. 152-175.

1992d                 "Reform in Vietnam: Backwards Towards the Future." Government and Opposition 27:2 (Spring), pp. 177-189.

1991b-1, 2    "In Search of Democracy: Public Authority and Popular Power in China."  In Brantly Womack, ed., Contemporary Chinese Politics in Historical Perspective (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 53-89.

1991c           "Transfigured Community: Neo-Traditionalism and Work Unit Socialism in China."  China Quarterly. no. 126 (June), pp. 313-332.

1991d           (with James Townsend) "Politics in China," in Gabriel Almond and G. Bingham Powell, Jr., ed., Comparative Politics Today:  A World View. 5th ed. New York: Harper Collins.  pp.  408-461.

1991e           "China and Vietnam: Peace at Last?"  The World Today 47:10 (October ), pp. 164-166.

1990a          "The Dilemma of Centricity and Internationalism in China." In Chin-chuan Lee, ed., Voices of China , New York:  Guilford Publications, pp. 229-242.

1990b           "The Chinese Party-State", Problems of Communism no. 5 (Sept.- Oct.), pp. 84-92.

1989a-1, 2    "Party-State Democracy:  A Theoretical Exploration." Issues and Studies, 25:3 (March), pp. 37-57.

(1990c)                                                                                                       Reprinted in King-yuh Chang, ed., Mainland China after the Thirteenth Party Congress.  Boulder: Westview, 1990, pp. 11-29.

1989b           "Heroes, History and Recent Events in China." CCP Research Newsletter 1:3 (Summer), pp. 54-57.

1988a           (with James Townsend) "Politics in China," in Gabriel Almond and G. Bingham Powell, Jr., ed., Comparative Politics Today:  A World View. 4th ed. Glenview: Scott, Foresman & Co., pp.  371-423.

1988b           "Cambodia and Vietnam's Regional Future."  In Vietnam Today.  The Asia Program of the Wilson Center, Occasional Paper no. 34 (Washington: The Smithsonian Institution), pp. 32-51.

1987a           "The Party and the People: Revolutionary and Post-Revolutionary Politics in China and Vietnam."  World Politics 39:4 (July), pp. 479-507.

1987b           "Stalemate in Indochina: The Case for Demilitarization." World Policy Journal 4:4 (Fall), 675-693.

1986c           "Where Mao Went Wrong: Politics and Epistemology in Mao's Leftism."  Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs (July), pp.  24-40.  Translated in part in: Guowai shehui kexue xinxi (News on foreign social sciences), March, 1989.

1984            "Modernization and Democratic Reform in China."  Journal of Asian Studies 43:3 (May), pp. 417-440.

1982b           "The 1980 County-Level Elections in China: Experiment in Democratic Modernization."  Asian Survey 22:3 (March), pp. 261-277.

1982c          "The Historical Shaping of Mao Zedong's Political Thought."  In F. J. Adelman, ed., Contemporary Chinese Philosophy The Hague: M. Nijhoff, pp. 27-61.

1981a           "Chinese Political Economy: Reversing the Polarity." Pacific Affairs 52:1 (Spring), pp. 57-81.

1981b          "Attention Maps of Ten Major Newspapers."  Journalism Quarterly 58:2 (Summer), pp. 560-565.

1979a           "Politics and Epistemology in China Since Mao."  China Quarterly 80 (Winter), pp. 763-792.

1979b-1, 2    "The Phases of Chinese Modernization."  In Steve Chin, ed., Modernization in China.  Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, pp.  1-15.

1977-1, 2      "Some Parameters of the Chinese Revolution and the Nature of Mao Tse-tung's Revolutionary Paradigm."  In J. G. A. Pocock, ed., Proceedings of the Conference for the Study of Political Thought: East Asian Political Thought, (35 pp.).

1975            "An Interpretation of Frederic Wakeman's History and Will."  Journal of Asian Studies 34:4 (August), pp. 1021-1026.

1974             "Theory and Practice in the Thought of Mao Tse-tung." In James Hsiung, ed., The Logic of Maoism.  New York: Praeger, pp. 1-38.