I am interested in various facets of security issues within international relations. I am interested in conflict escalation, particularly between great power rivals, and the decision-making process of states in crisis. I am also deeply interested in how domestic influences interact with external pressures to constrain and alter foreign policy decision-making, at times resulting in sub-optimal outcomes. I want to explore alternative applications for the role of audience costs, both domestic and international, outside the traditional application in crisis bargaining. I suspect leaders consciously act to avoid the generation of audience costs and the hands-tying mechanism that results. Furthermore, I am interested in how leaders manipulate the reaction of domestic and international audiences to suit their strategic objectives.